Theme 5: Changing authority of institutions



Wider questions of democratic legitimacy have been thrown up by the rise of support for populist parties. Whether through more overt forms of authoritarianism or less conspicuous ‘autocratic legalism’ the democratic rules of the game are being recast in European states such that democratic constitutional constraints appear to be under threat if not already subverted. Moreover, shifts in the political weight of different institutions including the apparently increased power of global and European institutions, finance ministries, of depoliticised regulatory institutions, judicial and quasi-judicial bodies as well as hybrid institutions at the regional and local level, may have further made public policies less directly responsive to democratic political pressures. An adequate understanding of the politician and policymaker perspective on responding to the challenges outlined here is important for framing suggestions and advice arising from the research.

The following publications by the Governance consortia relate to the changing authority of institutions:





  • Ershova A., Khokhlova A., Yordanova N., Schmidt F. D., & Glavaš G. (2021). Curb EU Enthusiasm: Categorising the Commission’s Responsiveness. Presented at European Political Science Association 2021 conference, University Association for Contemporary European Studies 2021 conference, and INDIVEU workshop 2021.
  • Ershova A., Khokhlova A., & Yordanova N. (2021). Constraining the Agency to Please the Public: the New Mode of Responsiveness in the EU. Presented at the European Political Science Association 2021 conference, the American Political Science Association 2021.
  • Ershova, A., Yordanova, N., Khokhlova, A. (2023). Constraining the European Commission to Please the Public: Responsiveness through Delegation Choices. Journal of European Public Policy.
  • Yordanova, N., Khokhlova, A., Ershova, A., Schmidt, D. F., & Glavas, G. (2024) Curb EU Enthusiasm: How Politicisation Shapes Bureaucratic Responsiveness. Forthcoming in West European Politics.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2024.2318998
  • Sylvester, C., Khokhlova, A., Yordanova, N., & Greene, Z. (2024). ParlEE plenary speeches V4 data set: Annotated full-text of 18 million sentence-level plenary speeches of eight European legislative chambers. Harvard Dataverse. https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/TLKVWY


  • Hiltunen, M. (2021). Online Political Advertising and Disinformation during Elections: Regulatory Framework in the EU and Member States. Helsinki Legal Studies Research Paper No. 68. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3897836.
  • Leino-Sandberg, P. (2022). Enchantment and critical distance in EU legal scholarship: What role for institutional lawyers? European Law Open, 1(2), 231-256. doi:10.1017/elo.2022.17
  • Hiltunen, M. (2022). Social Media Platforms within Internal Market Construction: Patterns of Reproduction in EU Platform Law. German Law Journal, 23(9), 1226-1245. DOI: 10.1017/glj.2022.80
  • Hofmann, H. C. H. (2023). Comparative Law of Public Automated Decision-Making. An Outline. CERIDAP. DOI: 10.13130/2723-9195/2023-1-3
  • Leino-Sandberg, P., Hillebrandt, M. Z., & Koivisto, I. (Eds.) (Accepted/In press). (In)visible European Government: Critical Approaches to Transparency as an Ideal and a Practice. (UACES Contemporary European Studies ). Routledge.
  • Hofmann, Herwig C.H. (2021). An Introduction to Automated Decision-Making (ADM) and Cyber-Delegation in the Scope of EU Public Law. University of Luxembourg Law Working Paper No. 2021-008. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3876059
  • Leino-Sandberg, P., & Ruffert, M. (2022). Next Generation EU and its constitutional ramifications: a critical assessment. Common Market Law Review, 59(2), 433–472. https://kluwerlawonline.com/journalarticle/Common+Market+Law+Review/59.2/COLA2022031
  • Herwig C.H. Hofmann. (2023). Comparative Law of Public Automated Decision-Making. An Outline. CERIDAPhttps://ceridap.eu/comparative-law-of-public-automated-decision-making-an-outline/
  • Leino-Sandberg, P., & Raunio, T. (2023). From Bad to Worse: The Continuous Dilemma Facing Parliaments in European Economic and Fiscal Governance. Government and Opposition, 1-18. DOI:10.1017/gov.2023.29
  • Liga, D. (2023). The Argumentation Scheme from Vicarious Liability. (Forthcoming publication in the Springer LNAI series). Springer.
  • Hiltunen, M. (2023). Exploring the legal making of the European digital economy. (Submitted for publication). European Law Open, London, Cambridge, University Press.
  • Hofmann, H. C.H. (2023). Automated Decision-Making (ADM) in EU Public Law. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561116
  • Hofmann, H. C.H. (2023). Assessing Cyber-Delegation in European Union Public Law. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-07. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561117
  • Mir Puigpelat, O. (2023). Algorithms, Automation and Administrative Procedure at EU Level. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-08. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561009
  • Schneider, J. P., Siegrist, K., Oles, S. (2023). Collaborative Governance of the EU Digital Single Market established by the Digital Services Act. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-09. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.456101
  • Enderlein, F. (2023). A Digital Health Infrastructure for Cross Border Governance of Communicable Diseases: A Case Study on the Covid-19 Pandemic. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561015
  • Pesch, P. J., & Boehm, F. (2023). Smart Border is Watching You! Fundamental rights implications of automated data processing and decision-making at the EU Border. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561011
  • Liga, D. (2023). The Interplay Between Lawfulness and Explainability in the Automated Decisionmaking of the EU Administration. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-12.http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561012
  • Wrigley, S., Hiltunen, M., Leino-Sandberg, P. (2023). “My name is personalised_ political_advertiser.py and I approve this message”: Regulating automated and targeted political advertising in EU Law. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-13.http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561013
  • Pflücke, F. (2023). Interoperability in the EU: Paving the Way for Digital Public Services. University of Luxembourg Law Research Paper No. 2023-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561014
  • Mir Puigpelat, O. (2023). The impact of the AI Act on public authorities and on administrative procedures. CERIDAPhttps://doi.org/10.13130/2723-9195/2023-4-6




  • Chaqués-Bonafont, L., & Jordana, J. (2022). Policy Analysis in Spain (1st ed.). Bristol University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv2j6xq7b. 
  • Jordana, J., Holesch, A., & Triviño-Salazar, J. C. (2022). Trans-governmental regulatory networks and the European Union’s involvement in global governance: an occasional instrument?. Journal of European Integration, 44:5, 677-693, DOI: 10.1080/07036337.2022.2073445


  • König, P. D., Siewert, M. B., & Ackermann, K. (2022). Conceptualizing and Measuring Citizens’ Preferences for Democracy: Taking Stock of Three Decades of Research in a Fragmented Field. Comparative Political Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/00104140211066213.
  • Freitag, M., & Zumbrunn, A. (2022). Direct democracy, personality, and political interest in comparative perspective. Politics. https://doi.org/10.1177/02633957221074897.
  • Gonthier, F., & Guerra, T. (2022). From the People, Like the People, or For the People? Candidate Appraisal Among the French Yellow Vests. Political Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12826


  • Eckes, C., Leino-Sandberg, P. & Wallerman Ghavanini, A. (2021). Conceptual Framework for the Project Separation of Powers for 21st Century Europe. Amsterdam Law School Research Paper No. 2021-06, Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance Research Paper No. 2021-01. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3777334.
  • Eckes, C., & Leino-Sandberg, P. (2022). The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement – Exceptional Circumstances or a new Paradigm for EU External Relations?. The Modern Law Review, 85: 164-197. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2230.12698.
  • Eckes, C. (2021). Tackling the Climate Crisis with Counter-majoritarian Instruments: Judges between Political Paralysis, Science, and International Law. European Papers, Vol. 6, 2021, No 3. https://www.europeanpapers.eu/en/europeanforum/tackling-climate-crisis-judges-between-political-paralysis-science-international-law.
  • Gnes, D., & Sormunen, M. (2022). Controlling the executive in external migration policy? A preliminary assessment of the role of the European Parliament in scrutinising and influencing EU informal readmission arrangements. Centre For The Law Of EU External Relations. https://www.asser.nl/media/795377/cleer_022-01_web_final.pdf.
  • Östlund, A., & Hallberg, J. (2022). På fel plats vid fel tid. EU-domstolens distansiering från internationell rätt genom ett problematiskt obiter dictum. Accepted for Europarättslig tidskrift (1).
  • Östlund, A. (2022). Effective Judicial Protection—to what effect and at whose service?. Accepted for European Law Review.
  • Östlund, A., & Hallberg, J. (2022). And Now For Something Completely Different… Disposing of pacta sunt servanda through an obiter dictum. School of Public Administration Working Paper Series, 34. https://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/70563.
  • Ghavanini, W. A. (2022). Mostly Harmless: the Referring Court in the Preliminary Reference Procedure. European law review, No. 3.
  • van ‘t Klooster, J., & de Boer, N. (2022). What to Do with the ECB’s Secondary Mandate. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. DOI: https://doi-org.uaccess.univie.ac.at/10.1111/jcms.13406
  • de Boer, N., & Van ’t  Klooster, J. (2020). The ECB, the courts and the issue of democratic legitimacy after Weiss. Common Market Law Review, Volume 57, Issue 6. DOI:https://doi.org/10.54648/cola2020765
  • Sormunen, M., Gnes, D. (Accepted/In press). Learning through rejection: studying the informalisation of EU readmission policy with access to documents requests. In M. Hillebrandt, P. Leino-Sandberg, & I. Koivisto (Eds.), (In)visible European government. Critical approaches to transparency as an ideal and a practice. Routledge.
  • Eckes, C., Leino-Sandberg, P., & Wallerman Ghavanini, A. (2024). The Dynamics of Powers in the European Union. Bloomsbury Publishing.


  • Junius, N., Caluwaerts, D., Matthieu, J., & Erzeel, S. (forthcoming). Hacking the Representative System through Deliberation? The Organization of the Agora Party in Brussels. Acta Politica. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41269-021-00226-3.
  • Caluwaerts, D., & Reuchamps, M. (2021, ed.). Belgian Exceptionalism: Belgian Politics between Realism and Surrealism. Abingdon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003104643.
  • Devillers, S., Vrydagh, J., Caluwaerts, D., & Reuchamps, M. (2021). Looking in from the Outside: How Do Invited But Not Selected Citizens Perceive the Legitimacy of a Minipublic?. Journal of Deliberative Democracy, 17(1), p.149-159. https://doi.org/10.16997/jdd.961.
  • Caluwaerts, D. & Reuchamps, M. (2023). Evaluating citizens’ assemblies: Criteria, methods and tools. In M. Reuchamps, J. Vrydagh & Y. Welp (eds.), De Gruyter Handbook of Citizens’ Assemblies (pp. 241-255). Berlin: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110758269-020


  • Seipp, T. J., Helberger, N., de Vreese, C., & Ausloos, J. (2023) Dealing with Opinion Power in the Platform World: Why We Really Have to Rethink Media Concentration Law. 
    Digital Journalism. DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2022.2161924