Theme 3: Democratisation of information and expertise



While the continuing development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has created new possibilities for some citizens and groups to communicate, mobilise and contribute to policy making, traditional sources of political information, such as the press and broadcasting, have also remained powerful in their existing forms and through adapting to the changed digital environment. Traditional sources of authoritative information – above all, experts and professionals in the established media – are being questioned, as citizens have access to alternative sources of information and news and as doubting the integrity of media professionals has become a more common political strategy. Developments in the information landscape, including the easy availability of the means of disseminating information widely, have raised a range of questions about the adequacy of traditional approaches to questions such as freedom of speech, privacy, and the incitement of hatred.

The following publications by the Governance consortia relate to the democratisation of information and expertise:

  • Beraldo, D., Milan, S., de Vos, J., Agosti, C., Nadalic Sotic, b., Vliegenthart, R., Kruikemeier, S., Otto, L., Vermeer, S., Chu, X., & Votta, F. (2021). Political advertising exposed: tracking Facebook ads in the 2021 Dutch elections. Internet Policy Review. https://policyreview.info/articles/news/political-advertising-exposed-tracking-facebook-ads-2021-dutch-elections/1543.
  • Matthes, J., Hirsch, M., Stubenvoll, M., Binder, A., Kruikemeier, S., Lecheler, S., & Otto, L., (accepted). Understanding the democratic role of perceived online political micro-targeting: Longitudinal effects on trust in democracy and political interest. Journal of Information Technology Politics.
  • Binder, A., Stubenvoll, M., Hirsch, M., & Matthes, J. (2021). Why Am I Getting This Ad? How the Degree of Targeting Disclosures and Political Fit Affect Persuasion Knowledge, Party Evaluation, and Online Privacy Behaviors. Journal of Advertising, 1-17. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00913367.2021.2015727.
  • Kefford, G., Dommett, K., Baldwin-Philippi, J., Bannerman, S., Dobber, T., Kruschinski, S., Kruikemeier, S., & Rzepecki, E. (2022). Data-driven campaigning and democratic disruption: Evidence from six advanced democracies. Party Politics. https://doi.org/10.1177/13540688221084039.
  • Vermeer, V., Kruikemeier, S., Trilling D., & de Vreese, C. (2022). Using Panel Data to Study Political Interest, News Media Trust, and News Media use in the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journalism Studies, 23:5-6, 740-760. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2021.2017790.
  • Boerman, S. C., Kruikemeier, S., & Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J. (2017) Online Behavioral Advertising: A Literature Review and Research Agenda, Journal of Advertising, 46:3, 363-376, DOI: 10.1080/00913367.2017.1339368.
  • Dommett, K. & Bakir, M. E. (2020). A Transparent Digital Election Campaign? The Insights and Significance of Political Advertising Archives for Debates on Electoral Regulation. Parliamentary Affairs, 73 (Supplement 1):208-224. https://academic.oup.com/pa/article/73/Supplement_1/208/5910285.
  • Dommett, K. (2020). Researching for Democracy? Data Access and the Study of Online Platforms’, Political Insight, 11(3): 34-36. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2041905820958822.
  • Kruikemeier, S., Sezgin, M., & Boerman S. C. (2016). Political Microtargeting: Relationship Between Personalized Advertising on Facebook and Voters’ Responses. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(6): 367-372. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2015.0652?casa_token=GijDZZA7xSIAAAAA%3A6PpPTGhPpA0VPEZxu0X-jt3eZQWz6t0ve0VI-lJwPUjzlsWI-aImTbD5L-TS0RBmM8L1UBN1GeuQ7w&journalCode=cyber.
  • Matthes, J., Hirsch, M., Stubenvoll, M., Binder, A., Kruikemeier, S., Lecheler, S., & Otto, L. (2020, August). Personalized political advertising dampens trust in democracy but increases political interest: Evidence from a panel study. Presentation to the Political Communication Division at the (virtual) AEJMC Annual Convention, August 6-9.
  • Vliegenthart, R., & Kruikemeier, S. (2017). Political advertising in the Netherlands: (still) little ado about (almost) nothing. In C. Holtz-Bacha & Just, M.R. (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Political Advertising. New York & London: Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315694504-29/political-advertising-netherlands-rens-vliegenthart-sanne-kruikemeier.
  • Gibson, R. (2022). Data-Driven Campaigning as a Disruptive Force. Political Communication (forthcoming 2022 in Special issue on Digital Campaigning in Dissonant Public Spheres).
  • Gibson, R. (2020). When the Nerds Go Marching In: How Digital Technology moved from the Margins to the Mainstream of Political Campaigning. Oxford University Press.
  • Koc-Michalska, K., Lilleker, D., Michalksi, T., Gibson R., & Jan Zając. (2020). Facebook affordances and citizen engagement during elections: European political parties and their benefit from online strategies?. Journal of Information Technology and Politics. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2020.1837707.
  • Rommele, A., & Gibson, R. (2020) ‘Scientific and Subversive: Two Faces of the 4th Era of Political Campaigning.’ with Andrea Rommele. New Media & Society 2020. 22(4): 595-610. 
  • Lecheler, S., & Egelhofer, J. L. (2022). Disinformation, Misinformation, and Fake News: Understanding the Supply Side. In: Strömbäck, J., Wikforss, Å., Glüer, K., Lindholm, T., & Oscarsson, H. Knowledge Resistance in High-Choice Information Environments (1st ed.).Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003111474 
  • Strömbäck, J., Boomgaarden, H., Broda, E., Damstra, A., Lindgren, E., Tsfati, Y., & Vliegenthart, R. (2022). From Low-choice to High-choice Media Environments: Implications for Knowledge Resistance. In: Strömbäck, J., Wikforss, Å., Glüer, K., Lindholm, T., & Oscarsson, H. Knowledge Resistance in High-Choice Information Environments (1st ed.).Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003111474 
  • Lindgren, E., Damstra, A., Strömbäck, J., Tsfati, Y., Vliegenthart, R., & Boomgaarden, H. (2022). Uninformed or Misinformed? A Review of the Conceptual–Operational gap Between (Lack of) Knowledge and (Mis)perceptions. In: Strömbäck, J., Wikforss, Å., Glüer, K., Lindholm, T., & Oscarsson, H. Knowledge Resistance in High-Choice Information Environments (1st ed.).Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003111474  
  • Dommett, K., Power, S., Macintyre, A., & Barclay, A. (2022). Regulating the business of election campaigns: Financial transparency in the influence ecosystem in the United Kingdom. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistancehttps://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/regulating-the-business-of-election-campaigns-united-kingdom.pdf 
  • De Keyzer, F., van Noort, G., & Kruikemeier, S. (2022). Going too far? How consumers respond to personalized advertising from different sources. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL 23, NO 3. http://www.jecr.org/sites/default/files/2022vol23no3_Paper1.pdf 
  • Lindgren, E., Lindholm, T., Vliegenthart, R., Boomgaarden, H. G., Damstra, A., Strömbäck, J., & Tsfati, Y. (2022). Trusting the Facts: The Role of Framing, News Media as a (Trusted) Source, and Opinion Resonance for Perceived Truth in Statistical Statements. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterlyhttps://doi.org/10.1177/10776990221117117 
  • de Vries, E., Vliegenthart, R., & Walgrave, S. (2022).. Telling a Different Story: A Longitudinal Investigation of News Diversity in Four Countries. Journalism Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1461670X.2022.2111323
  • Kruikemeier, S., Boerman, S. C., & Bol, N. (2021). How Algorithmic Systems Changed Communication in a Digital Society. Media and Communication, 9( 4), 116-119.
  • de Haan, Y., Goutier, N., van den Berg, E., Kruikemeier, S., & Lecheler, S. (2022). Invisible Friend or Foe? How Journalists Use and Perceive Algorithmic-driven Tools in Their Research Process. Invisible friend or foe? How journalists use and perceive AI in their research process. Digital Journalism. Advance online publication.
  • van der Goot, E., Kruikemeier, S., de Ridder, J., Vliegenthart, R. (2022). Online and Offline Battles: Usage of Different Political Conflict Frames. The International Journal of Press/Politics. Advance online publication.
  • Ohme, J., de Bruin, K., de Haan, Y., Kruikemeier, S., van der Meer, T. G., & Vliegenthart, R. (2022). Avoiding the news to participate in society? The longitudinal relationship between news avoidance and civic engagement. Communications.
  • Kruikemeier, S., Vermeer, S., Metoui, N., Dobber, T., & Zarouali, B. (2022). (Tar) getting you: The use of online political targeted messages on Facebook. Big Data & Society, 9(2), 20539517221089626.
  • De Keyzer, F., van Noort, G., & Kruikemeier, S. (2022). Going Too Far? How Consumers Respond to Personalized Advertising from Different Sources. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 23(3), 138-159.
  • Stubenvoll, M., Binder, A., Noetzel, S., Hirsch, M., & Matthes, J. (2022). Living is easy with eyes closed: Avoidance of targeted political advertising in response to privacy concerns, perceived personalization, and overload. Communication Research, Advance online publication. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00936502221130840
  • de León, E., & Vermeer, S. (2022). The News Sharing Gap: Divergence in Online Political News Publication and Dissemination Patterns across Elections and Countries. Digital Journalism. DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2022.2099920
  • Vermeer, S., Van Remoortere, A., & Vliegenthart, R. (2022). Still going strong? The role of traditional media in the 2021 Dutch parliamentary elections. Acta Polit. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41269-022-00270-7
  • Dommett, K., Barclay, A., & Gibson, R. (2023). Just what is data-driven campaigning? A systematic review. Accepted at Information, Communication & Society.
  • Otto, L.P., & Kruikemeier, S. (2023). The Smartphone as a tool for mobile communication research: Assessing mobile campaign perceptions and effects with experience sampling. Accepted at New Media and Society.
  • Greber, H., Aaldering, L., & Lecheler, S. (2023). The Worthwhileness of Immersive Journalism—Taking on an Audience Perspective. Journalism Practice. DOI: 10.1080/17512786.2023.2177711
  • Greber, H., Lecheler, S., Aaldering, L., De Haan, Y., Kruikemeier, S., Goutier, N., & De Bruin, K. (2023). Feeling the News? The Differential Effects of Immersive Journalism on Emotional Response. Digital Journalism, 11:1, 39-60. DOI: 10.1080/21670811.2022.2155205
  • Weikmann, T., & Lecheler, S. (2022). Visual disinformation in a digital age: A literature synthesis and research agenda. New Media & Society, 0(0). DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141648
  • Sheffer, L., John Loewen, P., Walgrave, S., Bailer, S., Breunig, C., Helfer, L., . . . Vliegenthart, R. (2023). How Do Politicians Bargain? Evidence from Ultimatum Games with Legislators in Five Countries. American Political Science Review, 1-19. DOI: 10.1017/S0003055422001459
  • Trumm, S., & Barclay, A. (2021). Parliamentary Representation: Should MPs Prioritise Their Own Views or Those of Their Voters? Political Studieshttps://doi.org/10.1177/00323217211061512
  • Boyer, M. M., Aaldering, L., & Lecheler, S. (2022). Motivated Reasoning in Identity Politics: Group Status as a Moderator of Political Motivations. Political Studies, 70(2), 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032321720964667
  • Otto, L., & Kruikemeier, S. (2023). The smartphone as a tool for mobile communication research: Assessing mobile campaign perceptions and effects with experience sampling. New Media & Society,25(4), 795–815. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448231158651
  • Dommett, K., & Power, S. (2023). Monitoring digital election campaigns: Assessing the transparency ecosystem in the United Kingdom. Politicshttps://doi.org/10.1177/02633957231156084
  • van der Goot, E., Kruikemeier, S., Vliegenthart, R., & de Ridder, J. (2023). The Online Battlefield: How Conflict Frames in Political Advertisements Affect Political Participation in a Multiparty Context. Political Studies, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/00323217231178105
  • Dommett, K., Kefford, G., & Kruschinski, S. (2023). Data Driven Campaigning and Political Parties. Journalism and Political Communication Unbound.
  • Stockinger, A., Svenja Schäfer, & Lecheler, S. (2023). Navigating the gray areas of content moderation: Professional moderators’ perspectives on uncivil user comments and the role of (AI-based) technological tools. New Media & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448231190901
  • Barclay, A., Gibson, R., Dommett, K. (2023). The regulatory ecosystem of data driven campaigning in the UK’ Frontiers. Political Science.
  • Chu, X., Otto, L., Vliegenthart, R., Lecheler, S., de Vreese, C., Kruikemeier, S. (2023). On or off topic? Understanding the effects of political targeted ads based on issues. Information, Communication and Society, 1-27. https://doi. org/10.1080/1369118X.2023.2265978
  • Kefford, G., Dommett, K., Baldwin-Philippi, J., Bannerman, S., Dobber, T., Kruschinski, S., Kruikemeier, S., & Rzepecki, E. (2023). Data-driven campaigning and democratic disruption: Evidence from six advanced democracies. Party Politics, 29(3), 448-462. https://doi.org/10.1177/13540688221084039
  • Stubenvoll, M., & Binder, A. (2024). Is knowledge power? Testing whether knowledge affects chilling effects and privacy-protective behaviors using browser histories. Computers in Human Behaviorhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2023.10794
  • Chu, X., Vliegenthart, R., Otto, L., Lecheler, S., de Vreese, C., & Kruikemeier, S. (2023). Do Online Ads Sway Voters? Understanding the Persuasiveness of Online Political Ads. Political Communication, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2023.2276104


  • Golka, P., & Van der Zwan, N. (2022). Experts versus representatives? Financialised valuation and institutional change in financial governance. New Political Economy. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2022.2045927.
  • Golka, P. & Krahé, M. (2021). Sustainable Finance: Gelenkte Märkte statt Lenkung durch Märkte. Makronom Magazin.



  • Castro, L., Strömbäck, J., Esser, F., Van Aelst, P., de Vreese, C., Aalberg, T., Cardenal, A. S., Corbu, N., Hopmann, D. N., Koc-Michalska, K., Matthes, J., Schemer, C., Sheafer, T., Splendore, S., Stanyer, J., Stępińska, A., Štětka, V., & Theocharis, Y. (2021). Navigating High-choice European Political Information Environments: A Comparative Analysis of News User Profiles and Political Knowledge. The International Journal of Press/Politics. https://doi.org/10.1177/19401612211012572.
  • Van Aelst, P., Toth, F., Castro, L., Štětka, V., de Vreese, C., Aalberg, T., Cardenal, A. S., Corbu, N., Esser, F., Hopmann, D. N., Koc-Michalska, K., Matthes, J., Schemer, C., Sheafer, T., Splendore, S., Stanyer, J., Stępińska, A., Strömbäck, J., & Theocharis, Y. (2021). Does a Crisis Change News Habits? A Comparative Study of the Effects of COVID-19 on News Media Use in 17 European Countries, Digital Journalism, 9:9, 1208-1238, https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2021.1943481 
  • de Vries, D. A., Taylor Piotrowski, J., & de Vreese, C. H. (2022). Results Research Digital Competence (DIGCOM) May 2022. Amsterdam School of Communication Research. https://osf.io/fjn3s
  • Trilling, D., Kulshrestha, J., de Vreese, C.Halagiera, D., Jakubowski, J., Möller, J., Puschmann, C., Stępińska, A., Stier, S., & Vaccari, C. (2022). Is sharing just a function of viewing? The sharing of political and non-political news on Facebook. Journal of Quantitative Description: Digital Media2https://doi.org/10.51685/jqd.2022.016
  • Ohme, J., Araujo, T., Zarouali B., & de Vreese, C. (2022). Frequencies, Drivers, and Solutions to News Non-Attendance: Investigating Differences Between Low News Usage and News (Topic) Avoidance with Conversational Agents. Journalism Studies, 23:12, 1510-1530. DOI: 10.1080/1461670X.2022.2102533
  • Ohme, J., Searles, K., & de Vreese, C. H. (2022). Information processing on smartphones in public versus private. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 27, Issue 6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jcmc/zmac022
  • Dobber, T., Trilling, D., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. H. (2022). Effects of an issue-based microtargeting campaign: A small-scale field experiment in a multi-party setting. The Information Society. DOI: 10.1080/01972243.2022.2134240
  • Hopmann, D.N., Stępińska, A., Stanyer, J., Halagiera, D., Terren, L., Gehle, L., Meltzer, C.E.,Buturoiu, R., Corbu, N., Cardenal, A.S., & Schemer, C. (Submitted). A qualitative examination of citizens’ (political) media diets across generations in five countries. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research.
  • Votta, F., Noroozian, A., Dobber, T., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. (2023). Going Micro to Go Negative? Computational Communication Research, 5(1), 1–50. DOI: 10.5117/ccr2023.1.001.vott
  • Hopmann, D. N., Stepinska, A., Stanyer, J., Halagiera, D., Terren, L., Gehle, L., Meltzer, C., Buturoiu, R., Corbu, N., Cardenal, A. S., & Schemer, C. (Accepted/In press). A qualitative examination of (political) media diets across age cohorts in five countries. Communications.
  • van Erkel, P. F. A., van Aelst, P., de Vreese, C. H., Hopmann, D. N., Matthes, J., Stanyer, J., & Corbu, N. (2024). When are Fact-Checks Effective? An Experimental Study on the Inclusion of the Misinformation Source and the Source of Fact-Checks in 16 European Countries. Mass Communication and Society, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2024.2321542
  • Hameleers, M., Tulin, M., de Vreese, C. H., Aalberg, T., van Aelst, P., Cardenal, A. S., Corbu, N., van Erkel, P., Esser, F., Gehle, L., Halagiera, D., Hopmann, D. N., Koc-Michalska, K., Matthes, J., Meltzer, C., Mihelj, S., Schemer, C., Sheafer, T., Splendore, S., Stanyer, J., Stępińska, A., Štětka, V., Strömbäck, J., Terren, L., Theocharis, Y.,  & Zoizner, A. (2023). Mistakenly Misinformed or Intentionally Deceived? Misinformation Perceptions on the Russian War in Ukraine. European Journal of Political Research.
  • Gehle, L., Hameleers, M., Tulin, M., de Vreese, C. H., Aalberg, T., van Aelst, P., Cardenal, A. S., Corbu, N., van Erkel, P., Esser, F., Halagiera, D., Hopmann, D. N., Koc-Michalska, K., Matthes, J., Meltzer, C., Splendore, S., Stanyer, J., Stępińska, A., Štětka, V., Strömbäck, J., Terren, L., Theocharis, Y., & Zoizner, A. (Accepted/In press). Misinformation Detection in the Context of the Russian Invasion of Ukraine: Evidence from Original Survey Data Collected in 19 Democracies. International Journal of Public Opinion Research.
  • Tulin, M., Hameleers, M., de Vreese, C., Aalberg, T., Corbu, N., Van Erkel, P., Esser, F., Gehle, L., Halagiera, D., Hopmann, D. N., Koc-Michalska, K., Matthes, J., Mihelj, S., Schemer, C., Stetka, V., Strömbäck, J., Terren, L., & Theocharis, Y. (2024). Why do Citizens Choose to Read Fact-Checks in the Context of the Russian War in Ukraine? The Role of Directional and Accuracy Motivations in Nineteen Democracies. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/19401612241233533
  • Stępińska, A. (2024). Citizens in the Political Information Environment: Research Areas and Methodological Challenges. Media Research Issues.
  • Stępińska, A. (2022). The Elections in Crisis: Media Coverage of the Postponed 2020 Presidential Elections in Poland. Political Science Review. https://repozytorium.amu.edu.pl/server/api/core/bitstreams/8de921c4-bb60-4ab8-aa8c-96ff3d868a18/content
  • van Erkel, P. F. A., & Van Aelst, P. (2024). Social media and affective polarization: does Facebook news use fuel political in- and out-group affect in a multi-party context?. Acta Polit. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41269-023-00324-4
  • van Erkel, P. F. A., Hopmann, D. N., Skovsgaard, M., & Terren, L. (2024). The Role of Consent Form Design Under GDPR: A Survey Experiment. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Volume 36, Issue 1. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edad047


  • Schnyder, G., Radl, M., Toth, F., Kucukuzun, M., Turnšek, T., Çelik, B., & Pajnik, M. (2023). Theorising And Mapping Media Ownership Networks in Authoritarian-Populist Contexts: A comparative analysis of Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, and Turkey. Media, Culture & Society. DOI: 10.1177/01634437231179366



  • Wrigley, S. (n.d.). Voting by Binary Choices: A Report on the Legal Regulation of Online Targeted Political Advertising and the Influencing of Political Decision-Making by Such Systems. (Submitted for publishing).
  • Liga, D. (2023). OntoVAT, An ontology for knowledge extraction in VAT-related judgments. (Forthcoming publication in the Springer LNAI series). Springer.


  • Razumovskaia, E., Glavas, G., Majewska, O., Ponti, E. M., Korhonen, A., & Vulic, I. (2022). Crossing the Conversational Chasm: A Primer on Natural Language Processing for Multilingual Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 74, 1351-1402. https://jair.org/index.php/jair/article/view/13083/26828


  • Kuo, A., Gallego, A., & Manzano, D. (2023). Support for Policies to Address Job Threats. Journal of Public Policy.
  • Garritzmann, J. L., HäusermannS., Kurer, T., Palier, B., & Pinggera, M. (2022). The Emergence of Knowledge Economies: Educational Expansion, Labor Market Changes, and the Politics of Social Investment. In J. L. Garritzmann, HäusermannS., & B. Palier (Eds.), The World Politics of Social Investment: Volume I. Welfare States in the Knowledge Economy. Oxford University Press.